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TDSAP Multi-Agency Frameworks for Managing Risk


Last Updated



Last Updated


The aim of this guide is to provide key information needed for professionals on the structure and contact points for the main multi-agency frameworks for managing risk posed by and to adult’s resident in Devon.

About this guide

There is some concern nationally that the development of adult safeguarding working arrangements has resulted in too much focus on a specific process (of report of a concern, progression to a Section 42 enquiry, enquiry meeting, investigation, protection planning, and review) and not enough on agreeing which actions will achieve the most positive outcomes for people.

In some cases, other frameworks and actions could be used more quickly and beneficially rather than solely pursuing formal safeguarding procedures. It is important that professionals understand what other frameworks there are available which could support to tackle and resolve the issue or concern.

This guide provides professionals with key information on the structure and contact points for the main multi-agency frameworks for managing risk posed to and by adults’ resident in Devon. The intended outcomes are:

  • the risk of harm is reduced by timely and appropriate use of the available frameworks for multi-agency risk assessment and management of adults who pose risks to others
  • where staff of any agency report an adult safeguarding concern for which another multi-agency framework would be more appropriate, they are given relevant advice as to how to access this
  • all organisations involved in providing services to adults who are at risk or pose a risk of harm have access to up to date advice on the purpose and scope of key multi-agency frameworks, and criteria for referral

The important thing is for all options to be considered, recorded and co-ordinated and for the best interests of the person who has been abused always to be at the forefront of people’s minds.


This section summarises the main multi-agency frameworks for managing risk and provides information on how to access these.


Safeguarding enquiries


Safeguarding enquiries

An enquiry is the action taken or instigated by the local authority in response to a concern that abuse, or neglect may be taking place to help and protect the adult. An enquiry could range from a conversation with the adult, or if they lack capacity, or have substantial difficulty in understanding the enquiry their representative or advocate, right through to a much more formal multi-agency plan or course of action.

The scope of that enquiry, who leads it and its nature, and how long it takes, will depend on the particular circumstances.

The objectives of an enquiry into abuse or neglect are to:

  • establish facts
  • ascertain the adult’s views and wishes
  • assess the needs of the adult for protection, support and redress and how they might be met
  • protect from the abuse and neglect, in accordance with the wishes of the adult
  • make decision as to what follow-up action should be taken with regard to the person or organisation responsible for the abuse or neglect
  • enable the adult to achieve resolution and recovery

Responsible authority

The responsible authority is the Local Authority Adult Services. However, safeguarding duties have a legal effect in relation to organisations other than the local authority on for example the NHS and police.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

The Care Act 2014 requires that each local authority must make enquires or cause others to do so, if they reasonably suspect an adult:

  • has needs for care and support, whether or not the local authority is meeting any of those needs
  • is experiencing, or at risk of, abuse or neglect
  • as a result of those care and support needs is unable to protect themselves from either the risk of, or the experience of abuse or neglect

Exploitation is a type of abuse. This online toolkit is for anyone who, through their paid or voluntary work, may come across people who are vulnerable to exploitation. It will help you understand, identify and report signs of exploitation, and access guidance and support.

Referral route/contact points

Devon Local Authority Boundaries

Call Adult Socail Care on 0345 1551 007 or email:


Monday – Thursday 9.00 am – 5.00 pm Friday 9.00 am – 4.30 pm and Saturday 9am – 5.00 pm – outside of these hours or on bank holidays call 0845 6000 388

Alternatively, a safeguarding adult concern referral can be made by using the referral form found on Torbay and Devon Safeguarding Adults Partnership website.

Torbay Local Authority Boundaries

Call Torbay Safeguarding Adult Single Point of Contact 01803 219888 or email

(Monday to Friday 9am-5pm. Outside of these hours or on bank holidays call 0300 456 4876)

Alternatively, a safeguarding adult concern referral can be made to Torbay Safeguarding using the online form found on Torbay and Devon Safeguarding Adults website.

Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conference (MARAC)


Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conference (MARAC)

MARAC is a meeting where information is shared on the highest risk domestic abuse cases between representatives of local police, health, child protection, housing practitioners, independent domestic violence advisors (IDVAs), probation and other specialists from the statutory and voluntary sectors.

Devon has four MARACs which operate twice monthly except North Devon who will be starting bi monthly from April: Exeter MARAC, East and Mid Devon MARAC, Northern Devon MARAC, and South Devon and South Hams MARAC.

The aim of the MARAC is to:

  • safeguard victims
  • make links with other public protection arrangements in relation to children, perpetrators and vulnerable adults (e.g. raising a safeguarding adult concern or referral into MASH)
  • safeguard agency staff
  • address the behaviour of the perpetrator

The responsibility to take appropriate action rests with the individual agencies – the MARAC is the process through which information is shared. After sharing all relevant information about a victim, the representatives discuss options for increasing the safety of the victim and turn these into a co-ordinated action plan.

The primary focus of the MARAC is to safeguard the adult victim. The MARAC will also make links with other forums to safeguard children and manage the behaviour of the perpetrator. At the heart of a MARAC is the working assumption that no single agency or individual can see the complete picture of the life of a victim, but all may have insights that are crucial to their safety. The victim does not attend the meeting but is represented by an IDVA who speaks on their behalf.

Responsible authority

Any frontline agency representative that undertakes a risk assessment with a victim, and thereby determines that their case meets the high-risk threshold, can refer a victim’s case to a local MARAC. IDVAs, police and health professionals commonly refer high risk victims to MARACs.

Case management and specialist support before, during and after the meeting, is normally provided by the Independent Domestic Violence Advisor (IDVA). The IDVA service provide specialist support to all high-risk victims of domestic abuse from the point of crisis and be skilled at working and co-ordinating the responses of different agencies. Co-ordination and administration of the MARAC is carried out by a dedicated MARAC co-ordinator or administrator, this supports an effective process and all MARAC agencies.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

The MARAC is victim focused and information is shared on victims identified as being at highest risk of harm. In Devon we make use of a Risk Identification Checklist developed by SafeLives called the DASH (Domestic Abuse, Stalking and ‘Honour’-based Violence) RIC (Risk Identification Checklist) to establish if the victim is at high risk.

Referral route/contact points

If a person scores 14 or above on the DASH risk assessment, complete a MARAC referral form and send to the relevant MARAC as soon as possible:



East and Mid Devon:

North Devon:

Devon Rural MARAC (South)

Advise the victim of their referral to MARAC and IDVA (where it is safe to do so).

Where the victim does not score 14 or above on the DASH risk assessment (and therefore will not go to MARAC), a referral form needs to be completed and sent along with the DASH risk assessment to:

For self-referrals please advise to FearFree Support Service helpline on 0345 155 1074.


For Torbay residents, if the person does not score 14 or above on the DASH risk assessment professional judgement and consent can result in a MARAC referral. If no referral to MARAC is considered, refer to Torbay Domestic Abuse Service (TDAS) via 0800 916 1474

For self-referrals please contact Torbay Domestic Abuse Service (TDAS) via 0800 916 1474.

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)


Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)

The Criminal Justice Act 2003 (“CJA 2003”) provides for the establishment of Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) in each of the 42 criminal justice areas in England and Wales. These are designed to protect the public, including previous victims of crime, from serious harm by sexual and violent offenders.

MAPPA is not a statutory body in itself but is a mechanism through which agencies can better discharge their statutory responsibilities and protect the public in a co-ordinated manner. Agencies at all times retain their full statutory responsibilities and obligations. They need to ensure that these are not compromised by MAPPA. In particular, no agency should feel pressured to agree to a course of action which they consider is in conflict with their statutory obligations and wider responsibility for public protection.

The Responsible Authority agencies and the MAPPA Co-ordinator are permanent members of MAPPA meetings. Duty to cooperate agencies are invited to attend for any offender in respect of whom they can provide additional support and management. Invitations to MAPPA meetings are sent in the form of a formal invitation from the MAPPA administration team for each area.

As a duty-to-co-operate agency, adult social care/safeguarding has a statutory responsibility to attend MAPPA meetings where invited and engage fully in the MAPPA process. The frequency of meetings depends on the level of management deemed appropriate for each offender. Offenders do not attend MAPPA meetings, but they are usually told about the meeting and the decisions made.

Responsible authority

The responsible authority is the primary agency for MAPPA. This is the police, prison and probation trust in each area, working together. The responsible authority has a duty to ensure that the risks posed by specified sexual and violent offenders are assessed and managed appropriately (MAPPA Guidance, Version 4.4).

While the principal responsibility for protecting the public from sexual and violent offenders’ rests with the criminal justice agencies, the effectiveness of public protection often requires more than just a criminal justice response. Other agencies, for example those providing help with employment and training, accommodation, and housing, play an important role in helping offenders to resettle and may help to reduce re-offending. The important contribution other agencies can make is also highlighted in cases where offenders have mental health problems or where they pose a risk of harm to children.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

There are three categories of violent and sexual offenders who are managed through MAPPA:

Category 1 – Registered sexual offenders are required to notify the police of their name, address and personal details, under the terms of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The length of time an offender is required to register with Police can be any period between 12 months to life, depending on the age of the offender, the age of the victim and the nature of the offence and sentence they received.

Category 2 – Violent offenders who have been sentenced to 12 months or more in custody or to detention in hospital and who are now living in the community subject to Probation supervision.

Category 3 – Other dangerous offenders who have committed an offence in the past and who are considered to pose a risk of serious harm to the public.

Referral route/contact points

To refer an individual into MAPPA please contact the MAPPA central

Creative solutions: Doing what matters forum


Creative Solutions: Doing what matters forum

There is a small but increasing number of people who require a different, more creative approach involving many agencies, often with different commissioning responses too. The aim of the forum is to provide an additional multi-agency, multi-disciplinary response – including from commissioners – which will agree bespoke solutions and packages of care, enable better risk sharing and risk management between agencies and so facilitate better outcomes for people than could be achieved with a ‘usual care’ approach. In some exceptional cases the forum will consider people where an end of life pathway is under discussion to ensure every opportunity is explored before agreeing end of life care.

The forum is a shared decision-making partnership with the person being an equal partner in this. This approach can be both difficult and frightening for some people to engage with and we will explore different ways in which we can enable and assist each person to be involved.

Responsible authority


The forum is hosted by the Torbay and Devon Safeguarding Adults Partnership and the Safer Devon Partnership


The forum is hosted by the Torbay and Devon Safeguarding Adults Partnership and the Safer Torbay Partnership.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

Eligibility for the forum is based on presenting need rather than diagnosis or primary label, which means any adult over 18 years who meets the criteria of a complex presentation that cannot be managed with aforum is not intended to replace ‘business as usual’ social work or healthcare delivery but is reserved for cases with high complexity and high risk where a single agency approach is not adequate to meet need.

A referral to the creative solutions forum is not a substitute for raising an adult safeguarding concern.

Referral route/contact points

At time of review (August 2021) it was acknowledged that Creative Solutions requires further work and development and is not currently live for acceptance of new referrals.

People in Positions of Trust (PiPoT)


People in Positions of Trust (PiPoT)

There will be occasions where a risk or potential risk may be posed by a person who works with adults with care and support needs, but where there is no specific adult at risk identified. Where such concerns are raised about someone who works with adults with care and support needs, it will be necessary for the employer (or student body or voluntary organisation) to assess any potential risk to adults with care and support needs who use their services, and, if necessary, to take action to safeguard those adults.

DSAP have agreed the following framework and process for responding to allegation and concerns against people working with adults with care and support need (those in a position of trust):

  • the information owner makes a disclosure decision based on agreed parameters (a referral to adult safeguarding is made if there is harm or risk of harm to adult (s) at risk) and shares the information with the Person’s employer, student body or volunteering manager
  • these organisations assess risk and take action as indicated by the risk assessment, this can include a referral to DBS, NMC or other regulatory body
  • the information owner may make a notification to the commissioner or regulator of service who may then follow up actions taken
  • all involved must keep detailed records of decision making.

Employers, student bodies and voluntary organisations should have clear procedures in place setting out the process, including timescales, for investigation and what support and advice will be available to individuals against whom allegations have been made.

If an organisation removes an individual (paid worker or unpaid volunteer) from work with an adult with care and support needs (or would have, had the person not left first) because the person poses a risk of harm to adults, the organisation must make a referral to the Disclosure and Barring Service. It is an offence to fail to make a referral without good reason.

Any actions and interventions taken to address concerns or allegations that a person in a position of trust poses a risk of harm to adults with care and support needs must be lawful and proportionate, and accord with any relevant statutory provision, for example, Data Protection Act 1998, Human Rights Act 1998 and employment legislation.

Responsible authority

The information owner, Person’s employer, student body or volunteering manager.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

This framework and process applies to concerns and allegations about:

  • a person who works with adults with care and support needs in a position of trust, whether an employee, volunteer or student (paid or unpaid)
  • where those concerns or allegations indicate the person in a position of trust poses a risk of harm to adults with care and support needs

These concerns or allegations could include, for example, that the person in a position of trust has:

  • behaved in a way that has harmed or may have harmed an adult or child
  • possibly committed a criminal offence against, or related to, an adult or child
  • behaved towards an adult or child in a way that indicates they may pose a risk of harm to adults with care and support needs

This framework applies whether the allegation relates to a current or an historical concern. Where the allegation or concern is historical, it is important to ascertain if the person is currently working with adults with care and support needs or children and if that is the case, to consider whether information should be shared with the current employer.

Refferal route/contact points

Where appropriate, notify and refer to external agencies for example; to the CQC (where the PiPoT is working or volunteering in a CQC regulated   organisation), statutory and other bodies responsible for professional regulation (such as the General Medical Council and the Nursing and Midwifery Council, The Charity Commission), police and the DBS.

Provide feedback at regular intervals to the relevant local authority (if there is a related safeguarding enquiry) and to their commissioning agency (if they have one).

Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)


Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)

Every local authority has a statutory responsibility to have a Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) who is responsible for co-ordinating the response to concerns that an adult who works with children may have caused them or could cause them harm. The Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) works within children’s services and gives advice and guidance to employers, organisations and other individuals who have concerns about the behaviour of an adult who works with children and young people. Included in this group are volunteers, agency staff and foster carers as well as people who are in a position of authority and have regular contact with children, such as religious leaders, political figures or school governors.

LADO’s role is:

  • to coordinate the safeguarding and investigative process in response to allegations made against people working with children
  • to provide advice/guidance to employers or voluntary organisations
  • to liaise with police and other agencies including Ofsted and professional bodies such as the General Medical Council and the Teaching Regulatory Agency
  • to monitor the progress of referrals to ensure they are dealt with as quickly as possible, consistent with a thorough and fair process
  • to resolve any inter-agency issues
  • to collect strategic data and maintain a confidential database in relation to allegations
  • to disseminate learning from LADO enquiries through the children’s workforce
  • to ensure that measures are in place to prevent further harm or abuse and that where required, referrals are made to the appropriate social care team

Responsible authority

The responsible authority is the Local Authority Children’s Services.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

The LADO should be alerted to all cases in which it is alleged that a person who works with children has:

  • behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed, a child
  • possibly committed a criminal offence against children, or related to a child
  • behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates s/he is unsuitable to work with children

Allegations of historical abuse should be responded in the same way as contemporary concerns. In such cases, it is important to find out whether the person against whom the allegation is made is still working with children and if so, to inform the person’s current employer or voluntary organisation or refer their family for assessment.

Referral route/contact points


If you need to contact Devon’s LADO, please consider all the guidance for organisations first.

If you believe the concern meets the remit of the LADO service, please complete the notification form or telephone 01392 384964 or email for a notification form.

The LADO is best placed to give advice once they have access to the full range of information about your concern. Only in an emergency should you contact the LADO prior to completing a notification form as the advice they can give may be limited.


If you need to contact Torbay’s LADO, please consider all the guidance for organisations first.

If you believe the concern meets the remit of the LADO service, please complete the notification form or telephone 01803 208541 or email for a notification form.

The LADO is best placed to give advice once they have access to the full range of information about your concern. Only in an emergency should you contact the LADO prior to completing a notification form as the advice they can give may be limited.




Violent extremism refers to the beliefs and actions of people who support or use violence to achieve ideological, religious or political goals.

Radicalisation is the process through which people develop support for extremist political, religious or other ideas. This can lead them to support violent extremism and terrorism. People may become radicalised if their views and beliefs are influenced by extreme ideas and perspectives.

The UK faces a range of terrorist threats including international terrorism, Northern Ireland related terrorism and extreme right-wing terrorism.

In 2018 the government set out its new Counter Terrorism Strategy (CONTEST) to reduce the risk of terrorism to the UK.

Prevent is one strand of this strategy and aims to safeguard people and communities from the threat of terrorism.


  • responds to the ideological challenge we face from terrorism and aspects of extremism, and the threat we face from those who promote these views
  • provides practical help to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism and ensure they are given appropriate advice and support
  • works with a wide range of sectors (including education, criminal justice, faith, charities, online and health) where there are risks of radicalisation that we need to deal with

It is possible to intervene during the radicalisation process and stop someone becoming drawn towards terrorism or supporting violent extremist activity. Early detection and referral into Prevent provides the best chance of stopping someone from being drawn into terrorism. Prevent referrals are screened, further information is sought and risks are assessed. Where there are concerns about a particular individual their consent will be sought prior to entering what is known as a channel process. Channel is a local authority led multi-agency process developed to support people at risk of being drawn towards terrorism or violent extremism.

Where appropriate, partners work collaboratively to establish a bespoke package of support for vulnerable individuals. Interventions could take the form of mentoring, welfare support, presenting opportunities to develop other interests or giving access to key services. These types of intervention can be very successful and there are examples in Devon where they have been used to help individuals move away from a potentially destructive path.

Responsible authority

Since 2015, “specified authorities” listed in Schedule 6 to the 2015 Counter-Terrorism and Security Act, (such as local authorities, police forces, schools and colleges), have had a statutory duty to ‘have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism’. Prevent duty guidance was introduced for “specified authorities” to follow.

The partnership elements of the prevent duty are delivered through the Devon and Torbay Prevent Partnership. The partnership is made up of a wide range of agencies including the county, district and unitary authorities, the police, the CCG, education providers, Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service, Her Majesty’s Prison Service and the National Probation Service, amongst others.

Both Devon and Torbay have their own multi-agency channel panels. These panels meet on a monthly basis to review any new cases for possible adoption into channel as well as review the progress in relation to any open channel cases.

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

Radicalisation is a type of exploitation which often happens out of sight, leaving victims at serious risk of harm.

People may be radicalised through exposure to a particular ideology, or due to non-ideological reasons – for example because of a specific grievance.

People can be radicalised by family members or friends, through direct contact with extremist groups, or through the internet, social media and online gaming sites.

It can happen to anyone, although some people may be more vulnerable because of factors such as:

  • being isolated from family, friends or the community
  • experiencing discrimination, bullying or harassment
  • having a grievance against a person, group or cause
  • having an autism spectrum condition or a learning disability
  • having a mental health difficulty

Belief in an extremist cause and membership of an extremist group can offer people a sense of purpose, identity and community. This may be particularly appealing if someone is experiencing difficulties and challenges in their life.

Radicalisation can happen over anything from a few days to several years. The signs to look out for include:

  • becoming more secretive, especially around internet use
  • spending increasing amounts of time communicating with friends they have met online
  • becoming isolated from family and friends
  • developing a fixation on a particular subject
  • expressing intolerance or hatred of other people or communities
  • changing appearance to reflect association with a group or cause
  • expressing thoughts about harming or using violence towards others
  • promoting violent or extremist material either online or through leaflets, stickers or graffiti etc

For more information about radicalisation, please visit the Preventing Exploitation Toolkit.

Referral route/contact points

If you are concerned that someone is being radicalised, or are at risk of being radicalised, please consider the following:

  • Do you think they are about to travel to join a proscribed organisation (i.e. extremist groups or organisations banned under UK law)?
  • Do you think they are involved in plans to carry out a criminal offence?

If you have answered yes to either question, please contact the police on 999. Otherwise please do one of the following:

Please complete the police Prevent referral form. Guidance for completing the Vulnerability Assessment section of the form can be found in the Channel Vulnerability Assessment Framework for Partners. Completing this section of the form is not mandatory but will help the Devon and Cornwall Police Prevent Team complete their initial assessment.

If the person you are concerned about lives outside of Devon or Cornwall, or you would like to report your concerns anonymously, please call the Anti-terrorism Hotline on 0800 789 321.

Members of the public can call 101 to report any concerns. All calls are dealt with sensitively and you can ask to speak with a Prevent officer if you prefer.

Alternatively call the Prevent team directly during office hours on
01392 225130 – please allow for the call to ring through to the answerphone as it calls our different offices in turn.

If there is an immediate threat to life always dial 999.

Modern slavery and human trafficking


Modern slavery and human trafficking

Modern slavery describes a situation where someone has gained control or ownership over another person and is using this power to exploit them. Modern slavery is a complex crime and may involve multiple forms of exploitation.

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 sets out the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) which is a framework for identifying and referring potential victims of modern slavery and ensuring they receive the appropriate support.

Victims may not be aware that they are being trafficked or exploited, and may have consented to elements of their exploitation, or accepted their situation. If you think that modern slavery has taken place, the case should be referred to the NRM so that the Single Competent Authority (SCA) can fully consider the case. You do not need to be certain that someone is a victim.

The NRM is used to identify and refer potential victims of modern slavery and make sure they receive appropriate support.

The difference between an NRM referral and a Duty to Notify (DtN) referral relates to the consent of the adult involved.

The government assesses every new NRM case to determine if the person has been a victim of modern slavery.

Locally partners have agreed that if the subject of the NRM is a suspect in a crime then the police should be consulted prior to an NRM being submitted. It is also advisable for the referring agency to get as much information as possible from other agencies prior to submitting the NRM.

Responsible authority

First responders work for designated organisations and help identify and support potential victims of modern slavery. First responders for designated organisations should use the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to:

  • report cases of modern slavery
  • refer potential victims for support and protection

Who is managed through this framework/criterion for referral

Modern slavery is a form of exploitation. It is a major issue in Britain. Victims and perpetrators include UK citizens and foreign nationals from a range of countries. People may be trafficked into the UK from abroad or may be trafficked internally between cities, towns and rural areas. Modern slavery can take place anywhere – including villages and coastal areas as well as large towns and cities.

Someone is a victim of modern slavery if they have experienced any of the following:

  • being forced to work because of physical or verbal threats
  • being owned or controlled by an ’employer’, usually through mental, emotional, sexual or physical abuse, or the threat of abuse
  • being held captive
  • being dehumanised, treated as a commodity, or bought and sold as ‘property’
  • having restrictions placed on their freedom
  • being moved against their will.

A person is also the victim of modern slavery if they are forced to participate in illegal activities such as shoplifting, pick-pocketing, drug dealing and drug trafficking (including county lines activities).

For more information about the different forms of modern slavery and the signs to look out for that might indicate that a person is a potential victim of modern slavery, please visit the Preventing Exploitation Toolkit.

Referral route/contact points

The online referral system is to be used for referrals into the NRM and for Duty to Notify referrals (DtN). Only staff at designated first responders organisations can make referrals here.

You can still report modern slavery if you’re not a first responder. Call the modern slavery helpline on 0800 0121 700 or report it online.

If you are unsure, you should check what the referral pathway is in your organisation.